27 Of course, this was not the case before the invention of wireless telegraphy. In August 1808 Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley (then Lord Wellington) succeeded in several engagements with the French in Portugal. The French commander then requested a ceasefire from Sir Arthur and his superiors. On 22 August 1808, an agreement was reached in Cintra on a ceasefire extremely favourable to the French. Subsequently, a definitive convention for the Evacuation of Portugal by the French Army was agreed. A “violent public outcry” followed when the news reached England, where, on the basis of known facts, there was no justification for having reached a truly consensual agreement with the apparently defeated enemy. As a result, Sir Arthur and his two superiors were forced to go to a commission of inquiry. Stockdale, , The Proceedings on the Enquiry into the Armistice and Convention of Cintra (London, 1809). Google-scholar The other modern conflict in which some opponents of the war did not de jure recognize their opponent, but granted him de facto certain warlike rights, are the various Arab-Israeli wars. See Brownlie on page 398; Rosenne, Shabtai, “Directions for a Middle East Settlement – Some Underlying Legal Problems,” in Moore, John Norton, Ed., The Arab-Israeli Conflict, Vol. Nathan Feinberg: “The Arab-Israel Conflict in International Law,” the Arab-Israeli Conflict, loc. cit., Vol. See also The Case of the Fjeld, 17 I.L.R.
345, 347 (Alex. Ct. 1950 Prize) (Arab states implicitly recognized Israel in the deratik). This document examines the legal provisions necessary to end the Korean War and replace the current ceasefire agreement with a lasting peace. To this end, it examines the many legal issues raised by the following questions: (1) the tensions between the war as a civil war between the two Koreas, on the one hand, and an international war between the armed forces of some twenty countries, on the other; 2. the unprecedented use of the United Nations name and flag on one side of the conflict; and (3) China`s insistence that the Chinese armed forces that participated in the hostilities are merely “volunteers”. The document concludes that: (1) each of the governments that contributed to UN troops was a warrior during the war and is now technically a part of the ceasefire; (2) Although the Security Council and the General Assembly have approved part of the conflict at various times, the United Nations itself has not been belligerent and is not a party to the ceasefire agreement; and (3) Despite its dislikes, the People`s Republic of China was a warrior and is now part of the ceasefire.