This compendium analyses the ecology of institutional governance in MEAs. It addresses the issue of legitimacy and effectiveness created on the basis of MEAS; i.e. COPs and Meetings of the Parties (PNP). It examines its structure, results and joint efforts to achieve the desired objectives of environmental protection, as well as other modern alternative approaches to environmental policy. The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law provides an analysis of the complex field of international environmental law in general and recognizes the importance of compliance, implementation and enforcement, including devoting an entire part (Part VII) to the analysis of these issues. This collection of essays, from both academics and practitioners, offers a perspective on how to ensure compliance with and enforcement of environmental legislation. Topics range from the application of MEAS and compliance strategies, to the protection of natural resources, to the role of courts and citizens in enforcing the rules. Compliance and non-compliance procedures are key concepts of international environmental law and are closely linked to the effectiveness of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAS). Bodansky et al.
2007 recognizes the importance of compliance, implementation and enforcement by devoting an entire part (Part VII) to the analysis of these concepts and their problems. Burgstaller 2005 offers a comprehensive analysis of the main theories of conformity, while Wolfrum takes a more comprehensive approach in 1998, not only examining the theoretical basis of conformity, but also supplementing them with practical considerations and examples. Beyerlin, et al. Fitzmaurice and French 2015 analyses the ecology of institutional governance in MEAS and the place of CFNs in the framework of the Conference of the Parties (COP) governance. This collection of essays focuses primarily on the function and complexity of the NNNs set up by a number of MEAS, but it also examines broader theoretical issues of compliance, such as the issue of sanctions, the link to dispute settlement, and the role of NGOs. Wolfrum presents a comprehensive analysis of the many issues relating to compliance with and enforcement of international environmental legislation, theories of compliance and the grounds for non-compliance with conformity promotion methods, as well as practical examples and case studies. . . .